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June 25, 2008
 
 
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Go to fullsize image belgian king leopold …to the …of congo

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Leopold no longer needed the façade of the Association, and replaced it with an appointed cabinet of Belgians who would do his bidding. To the temporary new capital of Boma, he sent a Governor-General and a chief of police. The vast Congo basin was split up into 14 administrative districts, each district into zones, each zone into sectors, and each sector into posts. From the District Commissioners down to post level, every appointed head was European: mercenaries and adventurers of every kind.

Native labourers who failed to meet rubber collection quotas were often punished by having their hands cut off.

Between 1885 and 1908, there were between five and eight million victims of Leopold’s personal rule, under a barbarous system of forced labour and systematic terror. When reading a reference by Mark Twain to these deaths, and the world-wide campaign against slavery in the Congo of which he was a part, Hochschild was surprised at his own ignorance. “Why were these deaths not mentioned in the standard litany of our century’s horrors? And why had I not heard of them?” Pursuing his inquiries he uncovered a “vast supply of raw material”. 

In 1885, Belgian King Leopold II was awarded the Congo Free State as a private kingdom; it was entirely his private estate until 1908. During that time, Leopold waged a ferocious campaign to win control of the Congo Basin from local rulers, and then established a vast hierarchy of state-directed terrorism to extort rubber from the natives. The slaughter in the “Congo Free State” is estimated to have reduced the population from 20-30 million in 1885 to 8 million in 1904. If this is true, the “Rubber Terror” may have killed more people than the Holocaust in Europe.

THE VEGETARIAN MOVEMENT IN ENGLAND,
1847-1981 :
A STUDY IN THE STRUCTURE OF ITS IDEOLOGY

Vegetarian Union (IVU) THE VEGETARIAN MOVEMENT IN Conflict started in the 1960s with the blood sports issue and then moved on to factory farming.